Andrew Jackson ushered in a new age for America. He was from a new generation of heroes and saw the world a little differently than those that came from previously.
He was known for his aggression, and he seemed never to forgive. His policies would change America.
The end of his term would leave the nation's economy in panic.
March 4, 1829: Andrew Jackson is inaugurated as President of the United States. During his inauguration, he speaks about restraining the federal government, promoting states' rights, fair treatment of Native Americans, and reform of civil service.
January 17-27, 1830: The Webster-Hayne debates transfix the Senate as they debate the U.S. Constitution and States' Rights.
April 8, 1830: The government of Mexico bans slavery and further settlement in its northern territory of Texas. This enrages the settlers who had begun to colonize the area after Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821.
April 13, 1830: President Jackson was invited to a dinner to honor Thomas Jefferson by Senators Benton and Hayne. The dinner was really to see where Andrew Jackson stood on nullification. During the dinner, the senators raise their glasses, toasting South Carolina's stance on nullification. Andrew Jackson then looks at his Vice President John C. Calhoun and said, "Our Union Must Be Preserved."
May 28, 1830: Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act that sends 5 civilized Indian tribes west of the Mississippi River. This results in tens of thousands of Indians dying due to hunger, exposure, and disease.
May 30, 1830: Andrew Jackson learns that his Vice President John C. Calhoun was in favor of punishing him during the Seminole War. Jackson writes Calhoun a letter saying, "Understanding you now, no further communication with you on this subject is necessary." It is the beginning of the end of their relationship.
May 31, 1830: Jackson signs a bill for funding new construction on Cumberland Road.
December 8, 1830: Jackson vetoes a federal funding bill for a 60-mile road in Kentucky.
February 15, 1831: John Calhoun orders a pamphlet containing correspondence about Jackson during the Seminole War to be published. This further divides the two men.
April 7, 1831: Secretary of War John Eaton resigns, and Jackson appoints him as Governor of Florida, which ends the Eaton Affair.
April 11, 1831: Jackson begins to reorganize his cabinet by placing anti-Calhoun men in vacant positions.
September 26, 1831: The Anti-Masonic Party became the first political party to hold a presidential nominating convention. It also becomes the first third party to field a presidential candidate.
December 12, 1831: The National Republican Party nominates Henry Clay as their candidate.
March 3, 1832: The Supreme Court rules in Worcester v. Georgia in favor of Cherokees not being removed. Georgia ignores the court's order with Jackson's permission. Cherokee was then removed.
April 6 - August 2, 1832: Trying to reclaim lands that had been lost in the War of 1812, the Sac and Fox tribes, led by their leader Black Hawk, began guerilla attacks that became known as the Black Hawk War. Black Hawk is capture and presented to Jackson. Jackson then sends him back to the West.
May 21-22, 1832: The Democratic Party holds a convention and officially nominated Andrew Jackson for President.
July 10, 1832: Jackson vetoes the charter for the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson did it despite Congress's approval and the bank keeping inflation down. He received much pushback for this decision.
July 14, 1832: Congress passes the Tariff of 1832, which enrages the nullifiers in South Carolina.
August 28, 1832: John C. Calhoun writes a letter to South Carolina's Governor in which he reaffirms the Doctrine of Nullifications as an essential state route.
October 22, 1832: Governor James Hamilton calls a state convention to discuss the issue of nullification.
October 29, 1832: President Jackson places U.S. forts on high alert and places General Winfield Scott in charge of the army in South Carolina.
November 19-27, 1832: South Carolina adopts the Ordinance of Nullification that overturns tariffs of 1828 and 1832. The ordinance also rules that all state officeholders swear allegiance to South Carolina and prohibits any appeals involving the ordinance from being made to the federal court.
December 4, 1832: Jackson again recommends that Congress lower the tariff rates in his Annual Message to Congress.
December 5, 1832: Jackson easily wins reelection.
December 10, 1832: Andrew Jackson issues the Proclamation To The People Of South Carolina, stating that the Disunion was treason.
December 20, 1832: John C. Calhoun is elected to the Senate and resigns as Vice President.
January 16, 1833: Jackson asks Congress to grant him authority to use military force in South Carolina if necessary.
January 21, 1833: South Carolina suspends the Ordinance of Nullifications.
February 20, 1833: Congress passes the Force Bill authorizing the use of military power to enforce federal law. Jackson vows to try Calhoun for treason.
March 1, 1833: Congress passes the Compromise Tariff Bill that reduces all tariffs for 10 years.
March 15, 1833: South Carolina revokes the Ordinance of Nullification in response to the Compromise tariff. However, they declare the force bill "null and void."
April 1 - 13, 1833: A group of men known as Texians have a meeting in the town of San Felipe to discuss possible independence from Mexico.
April 3, 1833: Jackson removes Federal Deposits from the Bank of the United States and places them in several small banks.
September 10, 1833: Jackson makes an official announcement that the federal government would no longer use the Second Bank of the United States and was pulling the Federal Deposits from the bank.
September 23, 1833: Treasury Secretary William J. Duane refuses to withdraw federal funds. Jackson replaces him with Taney, who begins the process of removing federal funds and placing them in small banks, also called "Pet Banks."
December 26, 1833: Henry Clay introduced a bill to Congress that would censure President Andrew Jackson from withdrawing the deposits from the federal bank.
January 3, 1834: The Mexican government arrests Stephen Austin, the leader of the American Texian colony, for eight months to inform the government of his colony's independence.
March 26, 1834: The Senate censures Jackson for exceeding his constitutional powers. His opponents dub him "King Andrew."
April 4, 1834: The House issues resolutions supporting Jackson's bank policy.
April 14, 1834: The Whig party is formed in opposition to Jackson.
June 24, 1834: The Senate declines Robert Taney as Secretary of Treasury. The first time a cabinet member is rejected.
January 30, 1835: Richard Lawrence attempts to assassinate President Jackson.
June 30, 1835: American Texians under William Travis seize the Mexican fort in Anahuac.
July 29, 1835: A boatload of abolitionist literature is seized in Charleston, South Carolina, and burned.
November 1835: The Second Seminole War begins under Seminole Chief Oceola. It would last until 1843.
December 2, 1835: In response to the burning in Charleston, Jackson proposes a ban on anti-slavery literature.
December 15, 1835: Mexican leader Santa Anna abolishes all local laws in Texas and replaces them with the federal government of Mexico.
December 29, 1835: A small group of Cherokee signs a treaty that will pay them $5 million for their land east of the Mississippi. Most Cherokee denounces the treaty.
February 23 - March 6, 1836: Santa Anna and 3,000 men place The Alamo under siege. 188 men hold off the Mexican Army until March 6. The battle cry "Remember the Alamo" is used 6 weeks later and becomes a slogan for the war.
March 1, 1836: The Bank of the United States charter expires and obtains a state charter to become the Bank of the United States of Pennsylvania.
March 2, 1836: The Republic of Texas is formed. A new Constitution and Declaration of Independence were drafted.
March 9, 1836: Two anti-slavery petitions are defeated in Congress. John C. Calhoun petitions the Senate not to allow anti-slavery petitions. His petition is defeated.
March 27, 1836: Santa Anna massacres 300 Texans at the Battle of Goliad
April 21, 1836: Sam Houston defeats and captures Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna is forced to sign a pledge acknowledging the Republic of Texas, but the Mexican government refuses to honor it.
May 18, 1836: Representative Henry Pinckney of South Carolina proposes a Gag Rule that would not allow any discussion of anti-slavery topics or legislation.
May 25, 1836: John Quincy Adams, now serving in the House, becomes the leading voice against the Gag Rule as he views it as unconstitutional.
May 26, 1836: The Gag Rule passes the House, stating that Congress has no power to interfere with slavery in the States.
June 23, 1836: Congress passes the Deposit Act that requires the Secretary of State to choose one bank in each state to deposit federal funds and assume the responsibility of the Bank of the United States.
July 1-4, 1836: The House and Senate recognize the Republic of Texas, but Jackson hesitates and worries that it will violate neutrality. He reluctantly does and will eventually become a leading voice for Texas' admission to the Union.
July 11, 1836: Jackson issues Specie Circular with the intention of protecting Westward Expansion from fraud. It would become the worst piece of legislation of his administration. It causes panic, and the economy begins to fail. Congress tried to repeal it but won't until after Jackson leaves office.
December 7, 1836: Martin Van Buren is elected President of the United States.
December 19, 1836: Senator Benjamin Swift proposes legislation that would ban slavery in Texas and any future state admitted into the union. It also has a provision to ban slavery in Washington, D.C., and to end interstate slave trading.
December 27, 1836: In response to Swift, Calhoun argues that it would be a dangerous proposition to violate state rights in regard to slavery.
February 12, 1837: Early signs of the Panic of 1837 begin to show as an unemployed mob breaks into New York flour warehouses and steals inventory.
March 4, 1837: In his Farewell Address, Jackson speaks of loyalty to the Union and sound fiscal management. However, he left a mess for Martin Van Buren to clean up.