This is a comprehensive list of Native American Tribes throughout North America. I have divided each tribe into regions and then listed the individual tribe.
Each tribe has its own history, culture, and lifestyle and much of it depended on the region where it lived.
Also read why I believe the Native Americans were unable to survive in North America.
Northeast Indian Tribes - Some of the first Indian Tribes to make contact with the European settlers when they arrived in America. These tribes included the Wampanoag tribe that met the pilgrims, the powerful Shawnee tribe, and the Iroquois Confederation.
Northwest Indian Tribes - These tribes would be some of the last to make contact with the Europeans and Americans. They had a much different culture than the other tribes listed and many still survive today on reservations or in Canada.
Southeast Indian Tribes - Similar to the Northeast tribes these tribes would encounter Europeans early on during the Age of Exploration. This would especially be true when the Spanish Conquistadors explored Florida and the other southern states.
Southwest Indian Tribes - These tribes would make contact with Europeans, specifically the Spanish, early. They would go on to become powerful foes to the Americans as they began to expand to the west.
Plateau Indian Tribes - These tribes lived near the Northwest tribes and occupied parts of Idaho, Montana, and parts of Canada. These tribes were some of the more peaceful tribes that were encountered during the Lewis and Clark expedition of the Louisiana Purchase.
Great Basin Indian Tribes - These tribes lived in the basin between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. They were some of the last tribes to make contact with Americans due to their location in an area with little precipitation. The most well-known of these tribes are the Utes that lived in Utah.
Great Plains Indian Tribes - Some of the most ferocious and powerful warriors came from these tribes. These tribes include the Comanche tribe which was particularly violent against Americans as well as Native Americans.
California Indian Tribes - There were many California tribes. Many of them were displaced due to the 1849 Gold Rush. They lived in one of the most beautiful areas of the United States.
Mexican Indian Tribes
South American Indian Tribes
Abenaki - One of the Algonquian-speaking peoples. They Lived in parts of Canada and the Northeast United States until being pushed west during American expansion. Unlike some of the more powerful Indian tribes, the Abenaki were fragmented into different subsets.
Algonquin - a small tribe in northern Michigan and Canada that was forced further north after the formation of the Iroquois Confederation.
Cayuga - made their home in what became the New York colony whose name meant, "people of the swamp." They were one of the original tribes to join the Iroquois Confederacy and are considered Iroquois along with the Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Onondaga, and Tuscarora tribes.
Chippewa- originally occupied large amounts of land around Lake Huron and Lake Superior and south in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota when their lifestyle was of the Northeast woodland cultural group. They were hunters, fishers, and farmers.
Erie- They were once a powerful tribe, however, became extinct after the Iroquois Confederacy decimated them in the 17th century.
Illinois Confederacy - They are sometimes referred to as the Illiniwek or Illini, which was a group of 12–13 Native American tribes in the upper Mississippi River valley of North America.
Iroquois Confederacy - A confederation of five and eventually six Indian tribes that populated upper New York state. The area they resided in played a crucial role during the French and Indian War which placed a high value on the Iroquois nations.
Kickapoo - An Algonquian-speaking tribe that was located around modern-day Indiana. The tribe's first contact with the Europeans was through the explorer Robert de La Salle during the La Salle expeditions.
Lenape - A large tribe that lived in the United States and Canada. They dealt quite a bit with William Penn when he arrived in Colonial America. They would side with the French and then later the British during the French and Indian War.
Lumbee - The beginning is a bit muddled. They became known due to their action against the Klu Klux Klan in the 1950s. They may have participated in the American Revolution but it is unclear as to what side.
Maliseet - They were an Algonquian-speaking tribe of the Wabanaki Confederacy. They are the natives of the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, and their territory extends across the current borders of New Brunswick and Quebec in Canada, and parts of Maine in the United States.
Menominee - They are part of the Algonquian language family of North America and made up of several tribes that were located around the Great Lakes. They are considered one of the historic tribes of upper Michigan and Wisconsin and occupied about 10,000 acres.
Miami - Originally spoke one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory that is now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, and western Ohio.
Micmac - They resided around Nova Scotia, Quebec, and the northeast of Maine. The tribe still maintains a population of 170,000 people.
Mohawk - lived in what would become the New York colony. They were the most powerful tribe in the Confederacy and played important roles during the French and Indian War, American Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812
Mohegan - A federally recognized tribe living on a reservation in the eastern upper Thames River valley of south-central Connecticut. They were originally based in Massachusetts Bay
Mohican - Occupied the upper Hudson River Valley around where modern-day Albany, New York is located. They had a conflict with the Mohawk Tribe in the late 17th century during the Beaver Wars and were driven southeast into Massachusetts Bay.
Montauk - located across the Long Island Sound which was part of Connecticut and Rhode Island Colony. and was an Algonquian-speaking tribe. They are related to the Pequot and Narragansett tribes that lived across the New England Colonies.
Munsee - a subtribe of the Lenape. They originally were one of three great divisions of the Lenape nation and lived around the upper portion of the Delaware River. They generally populated New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
Nanticoke - The Nanticoke tribe was a northeast tribe located around Delaware. They later moved to Canada and Oklahoma. The Nanticoke tribe was a people group that consisted of several tribes: Nanticoke proper, Choptank, Assateague, Piscataway, and Doeg.
Narragansett - One of the more influential tribes in New England during the settlement of early Colonial America. The first European to make contact with them was Giovanni de Verrazzano in 1524. They participated in King Philip's War despite Roger Williams pleading for them to stay neutral.
Niantic - Overwhelmed by the Pequot Indians in the region and were split up into two different tribes, Western Niantic and Eastern Niantic. The Western Niantics were subjects of the Pequot and the Eastern Niantics became close allies to the Narragansetts.
Nipmuc - Descended from the Algonquian peoples from Massachusetts. The tribe first encountered the colonists of Colonial America in Massachusetts. Smallpox would decimate their population as would their participation in King Philip's War.
Nottoway - A Native American tribe that resided in Virginia and spoke the language of the Iroquois. They were friendly with the early English settlers but as America grew the tribe would be lost to disease and expansion.
Oneida - They would become one of the few Native American tribes to side with the Americans during the American Revolutionary War. Later they would be removed from their lands and pushed towards Wisconsin. Today they are federally recognized in Wisconsin and New York.
Onondaga - Became a central location for the Iroquois Confederacy as it was located in the middle. Many of the most powerful leaders of the tribe would meet in the capital of the Onondaga Indian tribe to discuss important issues. This led to the Onondaga tribe being named "The Keepers of the Fire"
Ottawa - The Ottawa Indian tribe lived along the Ottawa River in eastern Ontario and western Quebec. They were an Algonquian-speaking Indian tribe, therefore, related to the Lenape tribe and enemies of the Iroquois and Wyandot. They aggressively fought against American Expansion.
Passamaquoddy - Tribe that lived around the area of Maine, United States, and New Brunswick, Canada. These were some of the first Native Americans that the French came in contact with when they were exploring the New World.
Penobscot - Was part of the Wabanaki Confederacy along with Abenaki, Passamaquoddy, Maliseet, and Micmac tribes. They are considered Northeastern Indian Tribe and at the time of European contact lived in Maine.
Potawatomi - They were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Ottawa. In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples.
Powhatan - A powerful tribe that influenced much of the political landscape in the area of Virginia. They are well-known in American History due to their role at Jamestown and the role of Pocahontas in saving Captain John Smith.
Quinnipiac - Resided in the modern state of Connecticut. The Quinnipiac spoke the Algonquian language and would be the first tribe put on a reservation by the English in 1638. The tribe no longer exists today.
Sauk - An Algonquian-speaking Northeast Indian Tribe that developed around northern New York and migrated to what is now eastern Michigan.
Sac and Fox - The earliest known location of the Sac and Fox Tribe was on the Michigan Peninsula. Here they lived for centuries prior to European contact. They were an Algonquian-speaking tribe like many other Northeast Indian Tribes and were neighbors of the Ojibwe and Ottawa tribes.
Seneca - Part of the Iroquois Confederacy and one of the more dominant Northeast Indian Tribes. It is believed that their territory extended to the Allegheny River and this was due to the Iroquois' successful conquest of the Wenrohronon and Erie nations in the 17th century.
Shawnee - A well-known tribe that was known for their excellent warriors. They fought against the Americans throughout their expansion. They are most well-known for their actions against Daniel Boone's daughter.
Shinnecock - Located on Long Island and was among 13 other Indian tribes in the area. Although they shared similar languages, kinship, and even relations with the other tribes the people remained decentralized.
Susquehannock - An Native American tribe that lived near the Susquehanna River in what's now the southern part of New York. While they lived near the tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy they were never part of it. Their lands spread through Pennsylvania and the upper Delaware River and even extended into Maryland.
Wampanoag - Most notable Northeastern tribe in Colonial America. They were the tribe that greeted the Pilgrims when they arrived in Plymouth. They would help them survive and become an ally for many decades until King Philip's War.
Wappinger - They were one of the few tribes that supported the Americans during the American Revolution in hopes that it would lead to better treatment. However, this did not happen. After their leaders were killed during the war they would begin a slow fade to extinction.
Winnebago - Located in northeastern Wisconsin close to modern-day Green Bay. They were a powerful tribe in the region and dominated the western shore of Lake Michigan and the Upper Peninsula.
Wyandot - Originally known as the Huron Indians, their name changed over time to the Wyandot which is how they are recognized today. The Wyandot were the last Native American tribe to leave Ohio.
Northwest Indian Tribes
Alsea - They resided on the coast of modern-day Oregon. There is not much known about them, but they did participate in the 1855 Coast Treaty and were moved to the Siletz Reservation, and would become part of the Siletz Confederation.
Bella Bella/Heiltsuk - A tribe that has existed for thousands of years in the northwest portion of the continent of North America. They are still located in British Columbia, Canada.
Bella Coola - A tribe that still exists in British Columbia, Canada At one point had a population of around 35,000 people until European disease caused much death and dwindled the population to around 300.
Chehalis - Residing in Washington the Chehalis tribe now lives on a reservation and has since 1860. Their land was around the area of the Chehalis river and they primarily lived on the food provided by the river.
Chinook - A tribe that resided in present-day Oregon. Lived in longhouses and had a diet made up of meat from the river and game in the forests. They were known as skilled Elk hunters and practiced head binding.
Cowlitz - A tribe that lived in present-day Washington state and lives on a reservation. They were similar to the Chinooks in that they practiced head binding.
Haida - One of the oldest Native American tribes that still live in their native homeland. They are typically compared to the Vikings by some historians due to their past ability of seamanship.
Haisla - A tribe/nation that has lived in the British Columbia region for 9,000 years. Over the past couple of centuries has been decimated by disease, but still maintains a presence and is recognized as a First Nation in Canada.
Klallam - A people made up of four tribes. Three are located in the United States and One is located in Canada. They are one of the few tribes that purchased land and lived on their own free of a reservation.
Kwakiutl - This tribe was and is still located on Vancouver Island off the coast of British Columbia. They are known for their artistic accomplishments as well as for being excellent fishermen.
Makah - A tribe that lived in present-day Washington state that has well-preserved villages due to a mudslide in the 17th century. They are well-known for their tradition of whale hunting.
Nooksack - A tribe located in the northwest corner of Washington State. They were a peaceful tribe that was eventually recognized by the United States government in the mid-20th century.
Nootka - A Canadian tribe located on Vancouver Island. Their first European Contact came when Captain James Cook made contact with them. Their population would be devastated by smallpox and a once powerful nation lost close to 75% of its population.
Quileute - A tribe with an isolate language that was located in the modern-day state of Washington. They were known as excellent whale hunters and craftsmen, especially with their canoe hull designs.
Quinault - A tribe located in Washington State who made contact with the Lewis and Clark expedition. They are known for their amazing basket weaving which is still sold today at many vendors including Amazon.
Takelma - A tribe that not much is known about. They lived in the Rogue Valley in the Oregon interior. They were known as foragers and a handful exist today.
Tillamook - The southernmost Salish tribe on the coast of modern-day Oregon. They were influenced by the Northern California tribes and known for their basket-weaving and detailed mythology.
Tlingit - This was a large tribe that was located in Alaska and Canada. They maintained their independence and continue to live in their native homeland. The tribe helped the United States as codetalkers in World War 2.
Tututni - A peaceful tribe that lived in Southwest Oregon. After making contact with the British explorer George Vancouver, the tribe was ravaged by a disease that wiped out most of their population.
Umpqua - Consisted of at least four different Native American tribes that lived in the Umpqua River Valley. They were known as peaceful people.
Southeast Indian Tribes
Alabama - A peaceful tribe that was once a part of the Creek Confederacy. They would eventually relocate to Texas where they supported Texan independence. They were granted land by Sam Houston and still reside on the land today.
Atakapa - A tribe located near the Gulf of Mexico. The famous explorers and Spanish Conquistadors from Europe adopted the pronunciation of their names from the nearby Choctaw tribe. They were numerous and their formation was somewhat different from other Native Americans.
Avoyel - A small tribe that lived near present-day Louisiana and was known for their active trading of flint for tools. The first Europeans to make contact with them were the French when famous explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville mentioned them in his writings.
Bidai - A small Atakapa-speaking tribe that would be devastated by disease and loses much of their population. They would eventually merge with other Atakapa-speaking tribes.
Biloxi - They lived near the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the now-state Mississippi. Eventually, they were forced west into Louisiana and Texas. The only Siouan-speaking tribe in the southeast.
Caddo -Inhabited parts of East Texas, Louisiana, southern Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The tribe is able to date themselves back to one of the earliest Native American cultures in North America which are known as the Caddoan Mississippian culture. During their early existence, they were mound builders like most of the natives in North America.
Calusa - One of the more powerful tribes in Florida. They are known for their defeat of Ponce de Leon and the marriage of a chief's daughter to Aviles. They were able to push back the Spanish for many years until disease decimated their population.
Catawba - They lived in South Carolina and managed to survive the disease, Indian removal, and American wars through some shrewd negotiations. They were one of the tribes that supported the Americans during the American Revolution. They still survive today in South Carolina and are the only tribe still remaining in the state.
Cheraw - Little is known of this tribe. By the time of European discovery, they had a small population and moved around South Carolina. They would eventually merge with the Catawba tribe.
Cherokee - The most infamous tribe in American History that became famous for becoming civilized and then having to endure the Trail of Tears. They would move to Oklahoma although one clan would remain in North Carolina.
Chickasaw - A loyal tribe to America through the early years. They were located in Northeast Mississippi and fought with the Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. They would side with the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Chitimacha - A large tribe located in the Mississippi River Delta for centuries until European Contact. They would be devastated by disease and a war with the French. The tribe would rebound in their population in the 20th century and they still reside in Louisiana.
Choctaw - A tribe that supported many American causes and became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. President Andrew Jackson would sign the Indian Removal Act that would push off their land, despite their service to America. The tribe would be relocated to Oklahoma.
Coushatta - A tribe located in present-day Tennessee that was removed west of the Mississippi. They often intermarried with the Alabama Tribe and were part of the Creek Confederacy.
Houma - Tribe located in Southern Louisiana that still exists today. They survived American expansion and avoided taking part in wars that would destroy their population. They speak
Miccosukee - Often considered to be part of the Seminole tribe, but they were an independent tribe that fought in the Seminole Wars against the Americans. They now reside in southern Florida on their reservation.
Natchez - A tribe that survived through much of the European Colonization but eventually faded due to disease and war with the French. The tribe had 4 conflicts with the French, each conflict reduced their population. They would merge into the various other Southeast tribes.
Ofo - The Ofo tribe was a Siouan-speaking Southeast Indian Tribe that lived in the upper Ohio River region. They would move south to the lower region of the Mississippi River during the expansion of the Iroquois Confederacy.
Saponi - The Saponi tribe lived in the areas of Virginia and North Carolina. They were a smaller tribe that tended to move around to avoid conflict with larger tribes. They did not have issues with marrying outside of their tribe and were even rumored to have ties to the lost colony of Roanoke.
Seminole - The Seminole Tribe was a prominent tribe in Florida and one that saw much conflict with the United States during its infancy. There were three Seminole Wars with the second being the bloodiest. Now the Seminole Tribe in Florida runs a lucrative gambling business and is thriving.
Taensa - The Taensa tribe was a small tribe that existed in the lower Mississippi Valley. They were similar to the Natchez tribe in their culture. Unfortunately, the tribe faded within three generations of the first European contact due to disease, war, and slavery.
Timucua - One of the largest and most populous tribes in Florida at the time of European discovery. They inhabited a large portion of northern Florida as well as a small portion of southeast Georgia. They also had 35 separate chiefdoms that were scattered throughout the territory.
Tunica - A tribe of the Mississippi River Valley that would be devastated by disease and eventually merge with the Biloxi tribe. The tribe is now known as the Tunica-Biloxi Nation and is recognized in the state of Louisiana.
Tuscarora - They began as a southeast tribe and would eventually end up as a northeast tribe. They left North Carolina after a bloody conflict and moved to New York where they would join the Iroquois Confederacy.
Waccamaw - A small tribe located in the Carolinas. They were decimated by disease, enslaved, and fell victim to various Indian Wars. Their population declined sharply during the Colonial American era.
Southwest Indian Tribes
Apache - A fierce warrior tribe who fought many wars against the expanding Americans. They would give America some of the most outstanding leaders and be known for their stealth and quickness with the bow.
Cora - A tribe that still exists in Mexico and is remembered for its resistance to the Spanish religion. At one point they were the only tribe that existed in a sea of Catholics that were still pagan.
Havasupai - A tribe that lived in and around the Grand Canyon for 8 centuries prior to European contact. They were pushed off the land and it was eventually restored back to them in 1975.
Hopi - A tribe that lived in Arizona and had friendly relations with the Spanish that eventually went sour. They are known for their artisans and have been federally recognized since the early 20th century.
Hualapai - Known for its brave warriors the tribe fought the Americans for many years. Unfortunately due to the loss of population and American strength, they were defeated and moved to a reservation in 1883.
Huichol - A Mexican tribe that now lives in Northern Mexico and the southeast United States. They maintain their autonomy and still practice their native religion. They are known for their art and strong families.
Karankawa - A peaceful tribe that turned hostile due to Spanish ambushes. They were known for their excellence in archery and trade in the interior of North America. After they sided with Mexico during the Texas-Mexican War the Texans began to become more aggressive against them. It would lead to their extinction.
Maricopa - A small tribe that was located on the Colorado River until they migrated to the Gila River. They were enemies to the Mojave and Quechan tribes and allies to the Pima. They became known for their basket weaving.
Mayo - A tribe located on the west side of Mexico. They allied themselves with the Spanish in the 17th century and would eventually revolt against their rule. Their population is about 80,000 people today.
Mojave - Tribe was located in the Black Canyon and was the largest concentration of natives in the southwest at the time of the Spanish. They were allies with the Quechan and enemies of the Maricopa and Pima tribe.
Navajo - The largest tribe in the United States with a population of almost 400,000 people. They are known for their bravery during World War 2 as code talkers and for the many conflicts, they had with American Expansion.
Opata - A Mexican tribe that was a fierce opponent of the Spanish until they allied with them against the Apache. They would become mostly Christian and take on the Spanish language.
Pueblo - A people of many different tribes. Pueblo is known for its agriculture and architecture and has influenced many. They are located primarily in New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas.
Seri - A Mexican tribe that the Spanish and Mexican governments persecuted until the Great Depression when they developed commerce in fishing.
Tarahumara - A tribe that is known for its long-distance runners. Endurance running is so ingrained in their culture that it is part of their celebrations and hunting methods. They are also known for their resistance to the Spanish Conquistadors.
Tepehuan - A tribe located in Mexico that was one of the most numerous tribes when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. They still exist today despite being devastated by war and disease during the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Yaqui - A tribe originally from Mexico that became known for their fierce warriors and passion for independence. They defeated the Spanish conquistadors and endured many struggles at the hand of Mexicans after Mexican independence.
Yavapai - A tribe known as a friend to the Apache lived in the modern-day state of Arizona. Despite being mostly peaceful, the tribe is known by many for the Oatman Massacre that left 3 innocents dead.
Yuma - A tribe that existed in Arizona and was known for their trading and warriors. They would fight a war against various tribes and the United States. After their defeat, they would never be a threat again.
Zuni - A tribe that has lived on their land for a couple of thousand years. They have cultivated the land and have a sophisticated culture.
Plateau Indian Tribes
- Cayuse - A tribe that was known for its bravery and horsemanship. They developed their horse breed that suited their semi-nomadic lifestyle and was one of the wealthiest tribes on the plateau in the 19th century.
- Coeur d'Alene - A tribe that converted to Christianity and became known for their stewardship of the environment.
- Klamath - A tribe that lived in Southern Oregon and became one of the wealthiest Native American tribes in the United States during the 20th century.
- Kootenai - They lived in modern Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia and were divided into Upper and Lower tribes. They would be the last tribe to declare war on the United States.
- Modoc - A tribe that will always be known for their fierce defense of their land during the Modoc War when 53 warriors held off 3000 United States soldiers.
- Nez Perce
- Walla Walla
Great Basin Indian Tribes
- Bannock Tribe
- Chemehuevi Tribe
- Kawaiisu Tribe
- Mono Tribe
- Paiute Tribe
- Panamint Tribe
- Shoshone Tribe
- Washoe Tribe
- Ute Tribe
Great Plains Indian Tribes
- Gros Ventre
- Plains Ojibwe
- Plains Cree
- Plains Apache
California Indian Tribes
- Northern Paiute
- Southern Paiute
- Yana and Yahi
Mexican Indian Tribes
South American Indian Tribes