President Theodore Roosevelt was the first President of the 20th Century and would become one of the most popular presidents in the history of the United States. During his presidency, America would see unprecedented nationalism, international growth and influence, and social reform.
September 14, 1901: President William McKinley dies after being shot by Polish anarchist Leon Czolgosz. Theodore Roosevelt was sworn into the office of president at age 42, making him the youngest president in history.
October 16, 1901: Roosevelt invites Booker T. Washington to the White House for a dinner. This would be the first African-American to be invited to the White House.
November 18, 1901: Britain gives control of the Central American canal in the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
November 27, 1901: To address some weaknesses found in the military during the Spanish-American War, Secretary of War Elihu Root opened the Army War College.
December 3, 1901: Roosevelt delivers his first Annual Address in which he calls for the end of the worst abuses by industrial conglomerates or trusts.
January 24, 1902: Danish legislature rejects a treaty that would have allowed the United States to purchase the Caribbean islands of St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John.
March 10, 1902: Roosevelt orders Attorney General Philander Knox to sue for the breakup of the Northern Securities Company. This came due to Congress's inaction to break up trusts that controlled much of the industry.
April 29, 1902: Congress amends the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. This would exclude all Chinese immigration from the Philippines.
May 12, 1902: The United Mine Workers of America go on strike in Pennsylvania to advocate for better wages and work environment.
May 22, 1902: President Roosevelt establishes the Crater National Park in Oregon.
June 17, 1902: Roosevelt signs the National Reclamation Act. This would allow the government to set aside the proceeds of Federal land sales to pay for federal irrigation construction and maintenance projects.
June 28, 1902: Congress passes the Spooner Act. The act authorized funding for the eventual Panama Canal.
July 1, 1902: The Philippine Government Act was passed, which makes the Philippines a United States Territory. This allows Roosevelt to appoint a governing commission to the new territory and amnesty to political prisoners on the islands.
August 19, 1902: Roosevelt tours America, introducing the "Square Deal" that would enforce anti-trust laws.
September 2, 1902: A popular national catchphrase is born when Roosevelt says, "Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick."
October 16, 1902: Roosevelt intervenes in the Coal Miners strike in Pennsylvania. This would end the conflict with the miners getting a 10 percent wage increase.
November 4, 1902: The Republicans take control of Congress by taking control of the House while maintaining control in the Senate.
January 22, 1903: The United States and Colombia come to an agreement that would give the United States a 99-year lease and sovereignty in the canal zone of Panama. However, the Colombian Senate would reject the agreement.
February 19, 1903: Congress passes the Elkins Anti-Rebate Act, which makes it illegal for railroads to give rebates on their published freight trains.
February 23, 1903: In Champion v. Ames, the Supreme Court rules that federal law enforcement officials have greater power than the state police.
March 14, 1903: Roosevelt declares Pelican Island in Florida the first Federal Bird Reservation in the United States.
July 4, 1903: Roosevelt sends a message across the Pacific and around the world using a new trans-Pacific cable.
November 3, 1903: Panama declares independence from Colombia. The United States recognizes the Country of Panama.
November 18, 1903: The United States and Panama signed a treaty that would give the United States control of a 10-mile-wide canal zone that would eventually become the Panama Canal. The terms were that the United States would pay Panama $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000.
December 12, 1903: President Roosevelt mediates a conflict between Venezuela, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy.
January 4, 1904: The United States refuses to acknowledge Puerto Ricans as full citizens of the United States.
February 29, 1904: President Roosevelt appoints a Panama Canal Commission that would oversee the construction of the Panama Canal.
March 14, 1904: Roosevelt had a breakthrough in the courts over the violation of anti-trust laws by the railroad companies. The Supreme Court rules that the railroad companies violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in the case of Northern Securities v. United States.
May 5, 1904: The Socialist Party nominates Eugene V. Debs as their presidential candidate.
June 21-23, 1904: Theodore Roosevelt is nominated by the Republican Party for President.
July 6-9, 1904: In an attempt to appeal to business tycoons, the Democratic Party abandons the populist wing of their party and nominates Alton B. Parker as their candidate.
November 8, 1904: Roosevelt defeats Parker in a landslide.
December 6, 1904: In his annual message to Congress, the "Roosevelt Corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine is outlined. Here, he expands the Monroe Doctrine and says that the United States has the right to act as an international police power in the Western Hemisphere to right flagrant wrongdoings.
January 21, 1905: The Dominican Republic agrees to allow the Roosevelt administration to administer its customs and manage its international debt.
February 1, 1905: Roosevelt establishes the National Forest Service.
February 20, 1905: The Supreme Court makes smallpox vaccinations mandatory in the case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts.
March 4, 1905: Theodore Roosevelt is inaugurated for his first full term as president.
April 17, 1905: The Supreme Court ruled in Lochner v. New York that it is an overreach of state powers to limit a baker's hours of work.v
July 7, 1905: The Industrial Workers of the World is established.
July 11-13, 1905: The Niagara Movement was launched by a group of African Americans that begin to push for new Civil Rights legislation.
September 2, 1905: Roosevelt helps end the war between Russia and Japan when he mediates the Portsmouth Treaty.
January 16, 1906: President Roosevelt attends the Algeciras Conference in the hope of mediating an end to the conflict between France and Germany over Morocco.
April 13, 1906: A race riot occurs when white civilians taunt African-American soldiers. Three white civilians are killed in the riot.
April 18, 1906: A major earthquake hits San Francisco, killing 452 people and all immigration records. This would lead to a massive amount of illegal immigration from China. The immigrants would be known as "paper sons" since their status as relatives could only be proven on paper that was destroyed.
May 21, 1906: The United States and Mexico agree to share the Rio Grande River for irrigation purposes.
June 8, 1906: Roosevelt signs the National Monuments Act.
June 29, 1906: Roosevelt gets the Hepburn Act passed, which authorizes greater governmental authority of railroads.
June 30, 1906: The novel The Jungle is released and exposes the terrible work conditions and a behind-the-scenes look at Meatpacking plants. The novel would become influential in reforms. Roosevelt would sign the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.
August 23, 1906: After a controversial election, the Cuban government requests the United States to get involved. Congress invokes the Platt Amendment, which authorizes the United States to occupy Cuba. In response, Roosevelt sends troops to the island.
September 22-24, 1906: A race riot in Atlanta leads to 18 African American deaths.
September 29, 1906: William Howard Taft was appointed military governor of Cuba.
November 6, 1906: Mid-term elections occur. The Republicans pick up 4 seats in the Senate but lose 28 seats in the House.
November 9, 1906: Theodore Roosevelt and his wife Edith become the first President and first lady to travel overseas while in office. The president visits Panama to see the progress of the Panama Canal.
December 12, 1906: Oscar S. Straus is appointed as secretary of commerce and labor. This is the first Jewish man appointed to be a member cabinet member.
January 26, 1907: In an attempt to maintain accountability, the United States Congress bans campaign contributions to candidates for national office.
February 20, 1907: Roosevelt signs the Immigration Act of 1907 that restricts Japanese immigration to the United States mainland.
March 2, 1907: Roosevelt issues a presidential proclamation that establishes forest reserves in 6 western states.
March 14, 1907: Roosevelt appoints Inland Waterways Commission to study the relationship between forest preservation and commercial waterways.
March 21, 1907: United States Marines land in Honduras amid violent political clashes.
June 15, 1907: The United States promotes the establishment of a World Court at the Second International Peace Conference.
October 22, 1907: The panic of 1907 was triggered by a run on the Knickerbocker Trust Company. The panic ends after intervention from the federal government and J.P. Morgan and Co.
November 16, 1907: Oklahoma is admitted to the Union as the 46th state.
December 16, 1907: "The Great White Fleet" begins its voyage around the world.
February 3, 1908: The Supreme Court ruled that anti-trust laws apply to Labor Unions in Loewe v. Lawlor.
May 10, 1908: The Socialist Party nominates Eugene V. Debs for a second time.
May 13-15, 1908: Roosevelt organizes a White House Conservation Conference.
May 30, 1908: Congress passes the Aldrich-Vreeland Act, allowing banks to issue money based on commercial paper and government bonds. The act also establishes the National Monetary Council, which would lead to the Federal Reserve System in 1913.
June 16, 1908: Republicans nominate William Howard Taft as their candidate for election.
July 7, 1908: The Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan as their candidate for the third time.
July 15, 1908: The Prohibition Party nominates Eugene Chaflin for president.
July 24, 1908: The Socialist Labor Party nominates August Gilhous as their nominee. The Socialist Labor Party differed from the Socialist Party in that they did not want reform but revolution.
November 3, 1908: William Howard Taft is elected president.
February 12, 1909: The NAACP (National Association For the Advancement of Colored People) is formed.
February 1909: The North American Conservation Conference convenes at the White House.